Understanding The Code: How To Breakdown Scores.

A post I’ve been meaning to do for a while now, as I get so many questions about the code, and how scores are made up. If you know your D from your E,  CR and CV, and how the bonuses work,  you’ll not need to read any further on this one.
A very long post, I feel I should offer some sort of prize for anyone that makes it to the end in one go, but having looked at breaking it into several posts, it seems to work better this way. Hopefully this can serve as a dip in resource for anyone interested in learning more about how to breakdown scoring, or wondering how or why a certain score was awarded.